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Pipe Terminology & Definitions

Pipe Terminology & Definitions

 

API

American Petroleum Institute - issues standards for oil & gas industry

ASTM

American Society for Testing Materials - issues standards for line pipe

A53A, A53B, A53F, A106

ASTM grades of carbon steel pipe

bevel

angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the tube and a plane perpendicular to the surface. Standard line pipe bevel is 30 degrees.

billet

round, solid bar of steel which is pierced to form a seamless tube or pipe

black pipe

denotes lacquered OD finish (as opposed to bare or galvanized)

box

internal (female) threaded end

Brinell

hardness testing system which measures indentation of the subject using a standard weight, shaped point

BTC

buttress threaded and coupled

bundle

number of pieces (same length) banded together for shipping. Height and width is usually 1-2' but # varies with OD

burst

internal pressure at which a tube will yield - often tested hydrostatically

casing

pipe used as a structural retainer for the walls of a drilled hole

CAD

computer aided design

CAM

computer aided manufacturing

CNC

computer numerically controlled - refers to machinery

cold drawn

pipe or tubing which is pulled through a die to reduce diameter and wall. This process usually produces closer tolerances and higher strength.

chamfer

beveled end, usually done as a preliminary operation to threading

coupling

short piece used to connect two lengths of pipe

CW

continuous weld - a method of producing small diameter pipe (1/2-4")

cft

hundred foot (sometimes used in pricing, i.e. $425.97/cft vs. $4.2597/ft.)

cwt

hundred weight. Often used in handling or trucking pricing, i.e. .30/cwt load out charge or $1.65/cwt (freight) with a minimum such as 30,000#.

DRL

double random length - line pipe with a 35'+ average length

drift

minimum ID clearance verified by pulling a mandrel of known size through a length of pipe

EMI

electromagnetic inspection - a method of determining wall thickness and detecting imperfections in steel tubes

ERW

electric resistance weld - most common form of manufacture for pipe in sizes from 2 3/8-22" OD

EUE

external upset ends - forging of ends on (API) tubing and drill pipe to provide additional thickness for strengthening connections

FOB

free on board - used to denote where pipe is to be provided to the buyer

flush joint

connection with male and female threads cut directly into the pipe (as opposed to T&C). This provides the same ID and OD clearance as in the middle of the tube, once lengths are joined.

FLD

full length drift (as opposed to "end drift") - usually performed as part of used tubing or casing (OCTG) inspection

hardfacing

abrasion-resistant metal applied by welding (usually in strips) on the surface of softer material to increase wear properties

hoist or lift plug

pin-threaded sub with hook, eye or rod on other end; used for picking up or laying down threaded pipe, casing or rods.

ID

inside diameter

joint

one length of pipe

LS

limited service - pipe not meeting specification, usually rejected at the mill

LT

loaded trucks - used in price quotation to indicate seller pays for handling

LTC

long thread and coupling (OCTG casing connection)

mid-weld

two or more joints welded to form a longer one

nipple

short length of pipe (<12") threaded on both ends

nominal

pipe size or wall thickness as specified (not actual). Sizes refer to approximate ID, even though OD is the fixed dimension.

NUE

non-upset end - OCTG tubing description (not as common as EUE)

OCTG

oil country tubular goods - pipe made to API specifications

OD

outside diameter

PEB

plain end beveled

pin

external (male) threaded end

protector

plastic, steel or composite cap to protect threads from handling damage

psi

pounds per square inch

range (R1, R2, R3)

lengths of OCTG (see Technical Data link - dimensional tolerances)

Rockwell hardness

relative resistance of a metal to indentation by a diamond cone, as expressed in hardness-scale units (A, B, C or G)

SAW

submerged arc weld - a method of producing very large OD pipe

schedule

numbers assigned to different wall thicknesses of pipe (i.e. sch. 40)

SEA

special end area - inspection to check for defects at either end of a steel tube which is also being inspected electronically. (EMI misses the ends.)

shoe

sub sometimes run on bottom of casing string with special metallurgy or design to help pipe to bottom through tight or bridged spots in drill hole

skelp

coiled strips of plate steel used to produce welded seam pipe

smls.

seamless - pipe with no weld in the circumference

spec

specification

SRL

single random length - line pipe with 17.5' minimum average length

STC

short thread and coupling (OCTG casing connection)

std.

standard - reference to wall thickness of line pipe (=sch. 40 for 1/8-10")

stencil

identification painted on pipe. Specification, size, wall, grade, test pressure, method of manufacture and mill are usually indicated.

sub

a short coupling with different types and/or sizes of ends

T&C

threaded and coupled. Male (pin) threads are cut into the pipe and a coupling provides female threads for both lengths being joined

T&D

tested and drifted - one method of verifying integrity of used tubing and casing (OCTG). "Test" refers to hydrostatic: ends are sealed and water pumped inside to a predetermined pressure. See drift def. above.

tensile strength

rating of steel's resistance to being pulled apart

tolerance

specified allowance (plus or minus) of the given dimension of a finished product due to inaccuracies in manufacturing; usually quite small (thousandths of an inch or very small percentage) and often part of a standard such as ASTM or API.

tool joint

threaded tube, usually thicker and harder, welded onto pipe to provide joint strength and durability exceeding that of flush joint or T&C connections

victaulic joint

grooves in the ends of pipe accommodate a coupling

xhy

extra heavy - pipe about 50% thicker than standard (=sch. 80 for 1/8-8")

xxhy

double extra heavy - twice as thick as xhy for 1/2-6"

yield strength

tensile stress required to produce permanent elongation of a steel tube

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