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Aluminum

 

     Aluminum is commonly used in today's modern world and its abilities and uses are extremely diverse due to its relatively low density, its high resistivity to corrosion, its malleability, ductility, and finally its durability. It is unlike all other metallic elements because of its variability of uses in industries such as aerospace, electronics, structural, transportation, and construction. It is the third most abundant element and the most copious metal in the earth's crust taking up 8 percent of the solid surface on the planet. Aluminum is also well-tolerated by plants and animals. Aluminum is theoretically 100 percent recyclable without any loss of its natural important characteristics. It is also non-magnetic and does not easily ignite. The yield strength of pure aluminum is 7-11 MPa and aluminum alloys range from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Since aluminum is one-third the density and stiffness of steel, making it shine for its malleability and lightness, it is an easily machined, cast, drawn, and extruded metal. The heat treatment and manufacturing process determines the strength of the aluminum alloys. Some common aluminum alloys are ASTM 2024, ASTM 6061, ASTM 7075, ASTM 7050, and ASTM 7475. 

      More specifically, aluminum bars and aluminum flat bars are used in the manufacturing of automobiles, aircrafts, bicycles, cookware, window and door manufacturing, as well as walls in construction for the strong corrosive resistance. Aluminum bars and flat bars are most commonly used in the structural industry for electrical transport, telecommunication transport, and streetlight posts which demonstrates that it was chosen for its low density in long distance power lines. Some machining applications used includes threading, cutoff, turret knurling, cross slide knurling, counter-boring, trepanning, thread rolling, turning, forming, shaving, twist drilling, half round drilling, reaming, taper reaming, and tapping. Each type has many capabilities depending on the product you are looking for. 

     Lastly, aluminum tubes are used in the production of railings and since it is light-weight, it becomes more useful in high-elevation construction in skyscrapers. It also is employed in the manufacturing of transportation vehicles from wheelchairs to airplanes. These aluminum tubes can even be used for hot water conveyance with an insulation casing to arrest the loss of heat.

     Aluminum is abundant and useful, light-weight and versatile and great for many of your project needs. 

  

Aluminum Plates

Heat Treatable

ASTM

Industry Uses

Temper

Diameter

Yield Strength (KSI)

Brinell Hardness (KSI)

2024

Aircrafts structure

T351

1/4- 4 in.

41-42

120

6061

Durable structures with goos corrosion resistance, vehicles, railway cars, and marine

T651

1/4-14 in

35

95

7075

Aircraft and aerospace

T651/ T7351

1/4-6 in./ 1/4-4 in

54-78/ 48-57

150/...

             

  

Machine Processes for Aluminum Plates

Tools

Thickness

Length

Plate Sawing

Up to 20 in

146 in. Max

Plate Shearing

Up to 750 in

20 ft. Max

Precision Plate Sawing

Up to 6 in.

12 ft. Max

Precision Cut-off Saw

Up to 6 in.

Contour Shape Sawing

¼ in – 10 in

Waterjet Cutting

Up to 6 in.

 

Machine Applications For Aluminum Alloy Bars

 

2011 (T3, T8)

2024- T351

6061- T651/ T6511 and 7075- T651

Surface FPM

Feed IN/REV

Surface FPM

Feed IN/REV

Surface FPM

Feed IN/REV

Threading

Pitch of Threads

200, 250, 325, 450

 

150, 200, 250, 300

 

100, 150, 200, 250

 

3-8, 9-15, 15-20, 21 & up

Cutoff

Width of Cut (in.)

700- 1100

.0035, .0040, .0040

450-550

.0030, .0035, .0040

300-450

.0025, .0030, .0040

1/8, 3/16, 1/4

Turret Knurling

Stock Diameter (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

.0125, .0145, .0190, .0195, .0205, .0215

450-550

.0125, .0145, .0190, .0195, .0205, .0215

300-450

.0125, .0145, .0190, .0195, .0205, .0215

1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4

700- 1100

700- 1100

500-700

Counter-boring and Trepanning

Width of Cut (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

.0050, .0075, .0090, .0100, .0110

450-550

.0040, .0050, .0060, .0075, .0090

300-450

.003, .004, .005, .006, .007

3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4

700-800

700-1100

500-700

Thread Rolling

All Sizes

500-600

Spindle REV

500-600

Spindle REV

500-600

Spindle REV

20-29, 13-24, 12-22, 10-18

20-29, 13-24, 12-22, 10-18

20-29, 13-24, 12-22, 10-18

Cross Slide Knurling

Stock Diameter (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

.0025, .0033, .0045, .0060, .0075, .0095

450-550

.0025, .0033, .0045, .0060, .0075, .0095

300-450

.0025, .0033, .0045, .0060, .0075, .0095

1/4, 3/8, 1/2m 3/4, 1, 1 1/4

700- 1100

700-1100

500-700

Turning

Depth of Cut (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

0.012, .010, .008

Multi-Spindle

Single- Spindle

.010, .008, .006

Multi-Sprindle

Single-Spindle

.008, .006, .006

1/8,  1/4,  3/8

600

600- 1100

300-550

300-550

300-550

300-550

Forming

Width of Cut (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

.0035, .0030, .0025, .0020, .0015

450-550

.0030,.0025, .0015, .0010

300-450

.002, .002, .001, .001

1/8 - 1/4, 1/4- 1/2, 1/2- 3/4, 3/4- 1, 1-1 1/2

700-800

700- 1100

500-600

Shaving

Depth of Cut (in.)

700- 1100

.003, .002, .001

450-550

.0025, .0010, .0005

300-450

.0015, .001, .0005

.005, .010, .015

Twist Drilling

Diameter (in.)

Multi- Spindle

Single Spindle

.002, .004, .009, .014, .016 for the rest of the diameters

Multi-Spindle

Single- Spindle

.002, .004, .008, .011, .013 for the rest of the diameters

300

.0015, .0030, .0050, .0070, .0090, .0100 for the rest of the diameters

1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4, 1 1/2, 1 3/4, 2

400

Less than 1 in.: 600

350

less than 1 ½ in: 500

1-1 ½ in: 550

Over 1 ½ in: 450

Over 1 ½ in: 450

Half Round Drilling

Diameter (in.)

600, 600, 550

.005- .008, .008- .012, .012- .020

450-550

.004-.007, .008-.010, .012-.014

250-350

.003-.006, .007-.009, .010-.012

3/32- 3/8, 3/8- 3/4, 3/4- 1 1/4

Reaming

Diameter (in.)

600 - 450

.007-.010, .010- .020

500-450

.007-.010, .010- .020

300-250

.007-.010, .010- .020

-0.13

0.13

Taper Reaming

ALL SIZES

300- 500

.002- .005

300-500

.002-.005

300-450

.002- .005

Tapping

Pitch of Threads

50-75, 90- 125, 125- 150, 150- 200

 

50-75, 90-125, 125-150, 150-200

 

50-75, 90-125, 125-150, 150-200

 

3-8, 9- 15, 16- 24, 25 & up

                     

   

 

Aluminum Cold Finished and Extruded Rods and Bars

Type

About

Individual Properties

Shape

Alloy Type

ASTM

Description

Industries

Test Requirements

Temper

Yield Strength (KSI)

Tensile Strength (KSI)

Brinell Hardness (BHN)

Shear Strength (KSI)

Fatigue Strength (KSI)

Density

( lb./ in.^3)

Electrical Conductivity

( % IACS @ 68˚F)

Square (in.)

Round (in.)

Flat (in.)

Hexagonal (in.)

2011

B211

Alloy Aluminum 2011 has phenomenal machinability, unbeatable free cutting characteristics, and a wide range of machined surface finishing proficiency.

structural industry for electrical transport, telecommunication transport, and streetlight posts, manufacturing of automobiles, aircrafts, bicycles, cookware, window and door manufacturing, as well as walls in construction for the strong corrosive resistance

tension test, heat-treat response, bend testing, and stress-corrosion resistance and stress-corrosion cracking test

T451/ T3/ T8

26/43/45

45/55/59

95/95/100

32/30/35

18/14/18

0.102

39/45

 

1/8"-4"

 

1/4"-2-3/4"

2024

B211

Alloy Aluminum 2024 has a variety of characteristics such as adequate machinability, high yield strength, and relatively low density. Is often used in the structural industry.

T3/T351/T4/T6/T851

50/47/47/57/65

70/68/68/69/70

…/120/120/125/128

…/41/41/43/43

…/20/20/18/18

0.101

35

1/2"-4" or 1/4"-3/8"

1/2"-8" or 1/8"-7/16"

1/2" x 3/4" - 4"x 6" or 1/8" x 1" - 3/8' x6"

5/8"-2-3/4" or 1/4"-9/16"

6061

B211

Phenomenal combining capabilities, high yield strength, machineability, and a very high resistance to corrosion. It is one of the most commonly sold Aluminum products.

T4/T6/T651/T8

21/40/40/48

35/45/45/50

65/95/95/…

24/30/30/…

13/14/14/…

0.098

40/43/43

 

1/8"-7/16" or 1/2"-8"

 

1/4"-1/2" or 5/8" -2"

6061 Extruded

B211

Phenomenal combining capabilities, high yield strength, machineability, and a very high resistance to corrosion. It is one of the most commonly sold Aluminum products, same as 6061.

T6511/T6

17/17

40/40

 

30/30

14/14

0.098

43/43

3/8"-6" or 1/4"

3/8"-8-1/2" or 9"-15"

1/8" x 1/2" - 4" x 6"

1/2"- 1-1/4"

7068 Extruded

B211

7068 is very comparable to 7075, but has a significantly higher yield strength. Due to its unbelievable strength and its low density, it is commonly used.

T6511

9

99

190

53

 

0.103

31

 

3/4"-2-1/2"

 

 

7075

B211

High yield strength and fatigue strength causing it to be employed in high stress structures.

T6/T651/T7351

11/11/13/…

73/73/62

150/150/…

48/48/…

23/23/22

0.101

33/33

 

3/8"- 1/2" or 9/16"-8"

 

 

 

 

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