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Steel

 

         Steel is used in a number of industries including construction, engineering, oil and natural gas, aerospace, and defense. Most large modern buildings today use a steel skeleton for improved strength and support. Steel has been around since the 17th century and has evolved and grown more than ever in this modern world of technology.

         Steel is an inexpensive, mass-produced material as well as one of the most common materials used in the world. Like many other metals, there are different heat treatments available, comprising of annealing, quenching, and tempering. Annealing heats the steel to a high temperature to soften the metal. Quenching and tempering methods heat the metal to its austenite phase which is when the metal is at its critical temperature, then puts it in water or oil to quickly cool it, making it hard and brittle. If it is further tempered it will result in a more pliable and fracture-resistant steel.

         Steel is an alloy containing iron and other elements, mainly carbon, which acts as the hardening agent that prevents dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from shifting past one another. The percentage present of each alloying element in the steel determines the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength. Alloys with greater than 2.1 percent carbon content are known as cast-iron for their lower melting point and good castability. It is known for its astonishing rust resistance and its weldability.

         Steel tubes are employed in the construction of mounts, reinforcement of concrete, highway signs, fence posts, culvert pipes, and skeletons of buildings. Steel tubes and pipes are commonly found in transportation of potable water casings for utility lines and in the oil and natural gas industry. They are also used for transportation of raw material and finished products.

         Steel plates are applied in high temperature containers like boilers and used in the manufacturing of ships and other marine vehicles. Steel plates are important in construction for their essential strength and can be found in all types of buildings. In the defense industry, steel plates are used for sturdy military grade vehicles like tanks, jets, and buildings such as bunkers.  

 

 

 

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